The former US Open champion is in the early stages of his comeback after missing most of 2023 following surgery on both his hands and left ankle.
She won a match in Auckland in her first tournament back, reached the second round of the Australian Open and beat world number 36 Marie Bouzkova in Abu Dhabi last week.
But that victory was followed by a comprehensive loss to second seed Ons Jabeur and, given another wildcard this week in Qatar, he suffered another early exit.
Raducanu had set point at 6-5 when she served in the second-set breaker but Kalinina saved it and took the next two points to seal the win.
The Briton hit 48 unforced errors compared to 22 by Kalinina, who will play next to eighth seed Jelena Ostapenko.
“It’s a combination of things,” Raducanu said.
“It’s my first day game that I’ve played in a year. That’s different.
“I need to practice training outside a little more. The lights, the conditions, the shadows… it’s very difficult to see the ball, I found it in the end.
“Without my tennis I had to try and at least fight and I did that in the second set.”
Raducanu said he would return home after consecutive weeks on tour but said he needed to “schedule my tournaments better”.
“I just had a hard time timing the ball,” he said. “It comes with a lot of practice time as well as matches.
“It’s hard for me to get used to the tour schedule. It’s one tournament and then another.
“I need to schedule my tournaments better and try to get more matches under my belt.”
Also on Monday, four-time major champion Naomi Osaka won his first-round tie 7-5 6-4 against Caroline Garcia in France.
Osaka, 26, returned to her Grand Slam at the Australian Open in January after giving birth last year, but was knocked out in the first round by the 30-year-old Garcia.
In Doha, the Japanese player was 5-3 down in the first set before 15th seed Garcia lost, giving Osaka a chance to recover and seal the set by winning four straight games.
Meanwhile, Belarusian Victoria Azarenka, a two-time winner of the tournament, defeating Poland Magdalena Frech 6-3 3-6 6-3 in the opening round.
Osaka, who was not selected, will face Croatia’s Petra Martic in the next round, while Azarenka will face China’s Xinyu Wang.
In the second round, the Polish world number one and top seed Every Swiatek swept into Romania Sorana Cirstea 6-1 6-1 in just one hour.